Tuesday, October 5, 2010


Television Production Process

Television production process also known as production because of the terms in the process mostly are similar with each other.

The Basic Television System

"A system is a collection of elements that work together to achieve a spesific purpose. Each elements is dependent on the proper workings of all the others, and none of the individual elements can does job alone." (Herbezt Zettl 2003), "Television production Handbook", page 4)

By the same author said, the television system consists of equipment and people who operate that equipment for the production of spesific programs. The basic television systems converts light and sounds into electrical video and audio signals that are transmitted (wireless or by cable) and reconverted by the television receiver into television pictures and sound. The picture signals are called video signals, and the sound signals are called audio signals. Any small consumer camcoder represented such a system.

Base on the research of 3R, the research found that 3R production flow basically follow the basic television system, and most of the basic on how handling camera, sound and video system are follow from the basic theory. For example, in how the way they give the message (program message) to the audience, they involve the subject (program message, host or talent) through television camera, video signal, audio signal (microphone), videotape recorder. From there, it's a transmission which will transmitted by the television receiver, television picture and sound.

Production Elements

As what of the researchers looked with the expanded television system in mind, then the researchers will look briefly at these seven basic production elements :

1 - the camera
2- lighting
3- audio
4- videotape recording
5- the switcher
6- postproduction editing
7- special effect

In the researchers observation and throught, when learning about television production, always try to see each piece of equipment and its operation within the larger context of the television system, that is in relation to all the order pieces of equipment that are used and the people who used them the production personal.

The Camera

The most obvious production elements is the camera-comes in all sizes and configurations. Some cameras can be easily carried and operated by one person, whereas others are so heavy that two people are necessary to lift the camera comfortably onto a camera mount.

"The camera mount enables the operator to move a heavy camera/lens/teleprompter assembly on the studio floor with relative ease. Many ENG/EFP cameras are camcoders that combine the camera and videotape recorder in one unit, much like popular consumer models. The ENG/EFP camcoders, how the researchers, are of higher quality and cost considerably more. It is often the high-quality lens that distinguishes a professional ENG/EFP camera from a high-end consumer model." (Herbert Zettl, "Television Production Handbook", page8)


Like the human eye, the camera cannot see without a certain amount of light because it is not objects what people actually see but the light reflected off them, manipulating the light falling on objects influences the way the researchers perceive them on-screen. Such manipulation is called lighting.

According to Herbert Zettl, lighting has three broad purpose :

1- to provide the television camera with adequate illumination for technically acceptable pictures.
2- to tell us what the objects shown on the screen actually look like, where they are in relation to one another and to their immediate environment, and when the event is taking place in terms of time of day or season.
3- to establish the general mood of the event.


Although the term television does not include audio, the sound portion of a television show is nevertheless one of its most important elements. Television audio not only communities precise information, but also contribute greatly to the mood and atmosphere of a scene.

According to Herbert, the aesthetic function of sound ( to make sure perceive an event of feel in a particular way ) becomes obvious when listen to the background sounds during a police show, example. The squealing tires during a high-speed chase are real enough, but the rhythmically fast, exciting background music that accompanies the scene is definitely artificial. For example, the gateway car and the police car are hardly ever follow the researchers in real life by a third vehicle with musicians playing the background music.

Example in 3R itself, the background music is such a most important thing for them especially for the theme music of 3R at the beginning and ending of the program to make sure the audience alert and known about it. Every background music for every different segment also important for them to make sure the audience receive the messages of every segment with the nice background music and make them interested with the segment or the program of 3R itself.

Videotape Recording

Most television shows are recorded on videotape or computer disk before they are aired. Videotape or a computer hard disk is used for the playback of commercials, even those originally produced on film. Most television programmes, how the researchers, originate from videotape playback. Videotape is an indispensable element for production programming and distribution. The researchers already observed and asked a few question about the using of videotape in producing 3R, the team production said that, they will use the videotape recording (betacam SP) switch to the digital beta when the episode or the programme need to send to the TV station and sometimes they will use the DVD or VCD because it is digital and more easy to use and can play back entire video sequences.

The Switcher

According to Herbert, the switcher works on a principle similar to that of push buttons on a car radio, which allow selecting certain radio stations. The switcher lets select various video sources, such as cameras, videotape, and titles or other special effect and, unlike the car radio, join them through a great variety of transitions while the event is in progress. In effect, the switcher allows doing instantaneous editing. In 3R, they are not use even a very simple in their editing job because switcher is just for the on live production.

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